INCOME TAX NOTES

PRESENTATION OF DATA -Text and tabular form of data

 PRESENTATION OF DATA






1. PRESENTATION OF DATA

  • Textual presentation of data.
  • Tabular presentation of data.
  • Tabulation of data and part of a table .

PRESENTATION OF DATA

 This refers to the organization of data into tables, graphs or charts, so that logical and statistical conclusions can be derived from the collected measurements. 



Data may be presented in(3 Methods):
 - Textual
 - Tabular or
 - Graphical.


TEXTUAL PRESENTATION
The data gathered are presented in paragraph form. - Data are written and read. - It is a combination of texts and figures. In textual presentation, data are described within the text. When the quantity of data is not too large this form of presentation is more suitable. 

For example: There are forty students in a class room. They had various subject. All the students are very intelligent and smart.


TABULAR PRESENTATION 
- Method of presenting data using the statistical table. - A systematic organization of data in columns and rows. In a tabular presentation, data are presented in rows (read horizontally)and columns (read vertically).
 For example see Table 1.1



Table 1.1 


 Classification used in tabulation is of four kinds:
 • Qualitative 
• Quantitative
 • Temporal and
 • Spatial

i) Qualitative classification
 When classification is done according to attributes, such as social status, physical status,            nationality, etc., it is called qualitative classification.

 For example- sex and location which are qualitative in nature.


Table 1.1

ii)Quantitative classification 
In quantitative classification, the data are classified on the basis of characteristics which are quantitative in nature. In other words these characteristics can be measured quantitatively.
 For example, age, height, production, income, etc are quantitative characteristics.

Table 1.2

iii)Temporal classification
 In this classification time becomes the classifying variable and data are categorised according to time. Time may be in hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. For example, see Table 1.3

Table 1.3

iv)Spatial classification
When classification is done on the basis of place, it is called spatial classification. The place may be a village/town, block, district, state, country, etc.
.Table 1.4 is an example of spatial classification


Table 1.4

  • Tabulation of data and part of a table .
 To construct a table it is important to learn first what are the parts of a good statistical table. When put together systematically these parts form a table. The most simple way of conceptualizing a table is to present the data in rows and columns along with some explanatory notes. Tabulation can be done using one-way, two-way or three way classification depending upon the number of characteristics involved. A good table should essentially have the following:



(i) Table Number:-
 Table number is assigned to a table for identification purpose. If more than one table is presented, it is the table number that distinguishes one table from another.

(ii) Title 
The title of a table narrates about the contents of the table. It has to be clear, brief and carefully worded so that the interpretations made from the table are clear and free from ambiguity. It finds place at the head of the table succeeding the table number or just below it.

(iii) Captions or Column Headings 
At the top of each column in a table a column designation is given to explain figures of the column. This is called caption or column heading

 (iv) Stubs or Row Headings
 Like a caption or column heading, each row of the table has to be given a heading. The designations of the rows are also called stubs or stub items, and the complete left column is known as stub column. A brief description of the row headings may also be given at the left hand top in the table.

(v) Body of the Table
 Body of a table is the main part and it contains the actual data. Location of any one figure/data in the table is fixed and determined by the row and column of the table.

vi) Unit of Measurement
The unit of measurement of the figures in the table (actual data) should always be stated along with the title. If different units are there for rows or columns of the table, these units must be stated along with ‘stubs’ or ‘captions’. If figures are large, they should be rounded up of rounding should be indicated.

vii) Source
 It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table. If more than one source is there, all the sources are to be written in the source. Source is generally written at the bottom of the table.

 (viii)Note
 Note is the last part of the table. It explains the specific feature of the data content of the table which is not self explanatory and has not been explained earlier.